Sort Universities by Ph.D. Density
In Version 12 of the Wolfram Language, data on "University" entities has been updated and expanded. Of particular note is the additional detail available for US institutions regarding degrees awarded per year, which can be queried by degree level as well as academic subject.
You can take the list of available subjects and find the top five doctoral programs (by number of degrees awarded) for a given university.
Using new ExtendedEntityClass functionality, you can also supplement the built-in properties of the "University" entity type with data from other domains in the Wolfram Language. For US states and counties, for example, detailed data is available about the highest level of education attained by residents.
You can create an implicit entity class of major research universities in the US, then compute a new property by identifying the appropriate county and pulling in the total number and fraction of the population with a doctorate degree in each county.
You can then rank these universities by the relative density of Ph.D.'s in their home counties.
You could also rank universities by the number of Ph.D.'s awarded (in the most recent year available) per Ph.D.-possessing resident in the entire county.