An Elementary Introduction to the Wolfram Language
Index
Abbreviations
Aborting evaluation, 308
Abs, 138
Absolute value (Abs), 138
AbsoluteTiming, 304, 315
Access
    to cloud deployments, 225
Access control
    for cloud objects, 272
Accessibility
    for visually impaired, 240
Accumulate
    in databin, 270
    with FoldList, 179
Accumulate, 181
Add to databin (DatabinAdd), 270
Addition (Plus), 1
    of lists, 15
AdjacencyGraph, 123
AdjacencyMatrix, 123
Adjectives, 222
Afterthought (function application as), 147
Age group
    target, xiv
Age of universe
    compared to UUIDs, 272
AI (artificial intelligence), 125
Aircraft positions, 84
Aircraft simulations (AnglePath3D), 91
AirTemperatureData, 103
AiryAi, 310
Algebra, 310
Algebraic variables
    symbols as, 212
Algorithms
    built-in, 312
    for music, 54
    for sorting, 258
Alignment
    of sequences, 268
All (as option value), 111
Alpha (Wolfram|Alpha), vii
Alphabet
    visual nearness in, 131
Alphabet, 48, 187, 214
Alphabet position (LetterNumber), 49
Alternation
    in regular expressions, 267
Alternatives
    in patterns (|), 200
    in string patterns (|), 264
Ambiguity, 80, 224
AmbiguityFunction, 224
Amusement parks
    as entities, 81
Anatomy
    as example of data, 82
And (&&), 171, 312
Android deployment, 227
AnglePath, 89
Angles
    units for, 88
AngularGauge, 146
Animals
    interpreter for, 220
    web app about, 228
Animal-vegetable-mineral
    and ImageIdentify, 133
Animation, 181, 240
    in Manipulate, 37
Annotations
    for code, 304
    in plots, 237
Anonymous functions, 153
Anonymous local files, 271
Answer
    latest (%), 241
APIFunction, 234, 313
APIs
    building, 234, 313
    external, 277, 282
Append, 245, 299
AppendTo, 245
Apply, 212
Applying functions, 147
Approximate numbers, 135
Apps
    creating, 225
Arabic alphabet, 52
Arbitrary precision, 136
Architecture
    of systems, 317
ArcTan, 140
Arduino, 283
Area, 311
Arguments
    of functions, 177, 208
Arithmetic, 1
    modulo, 139
    on images, 44
    on lists, 15
    with dates, 101
    with units, 87
Array, 177
Array subscript (Part), 16
ArrayFlatten, 185, 191
ArrayPlot, 58, 313
Arrays
    lists as, 10
    multidimensional, 57
    of arrays, 185
Arrow (), 109
Arrow (graphics primitive), 71
Artificial intelligence, 125
ASCII (ToCharacterCode), 52
AskFunction, 234
AspectRatio, 113
Assignment
    delayed, 247
    immediate, 247
    of names, 241
Association, 214
AssociationMap, 217
Associations, 213
    and string templates, 265
    combining, 293
    in datasets, 285
    of associations, 285
    visualization of, 240
Associative arrays (associations), 216
Associativity, 261
Assumptions
    in debugging, 306
Asterisk (*)
    for multiplication, 2
    in regular expressions, 267
Asynchronous operations, 283
At sign (@), 147
Atoms
    compared to UUIDs, 272
    in expressions, 206
Attributes
    of functions, 261
Audio, 53
Audio, 56
AudioCapture, 55
AudioPitchShift, 55
AudioPlot, 55
Authorization
    of external services, 282
Autocomplete menu, xiii, 75
Automatic
    for options, 110
Automobile
    historical word frequency, 104
AutoRefreshed, 234
Autoupdating website, 227
Axes, 71
    for Framed, 235
    for Grid, 114
Backquote (`), 140, 266
    typing, 267
Backslashes
    for entering quotes, 52
    in numbers, 140
Backtick (`), 140, 266
    typing, 267
Backwards (Reverse), 8, 45
Ball, 310
BarChart, 11, 80, 290
    for associations, 215
    versus Histogram, 146
BarChart3D, 146
BarcodeImage, 133
BarcodeRecognize, 133
BarLegend, 240
Bars
    labeling using, 240
Base expansions (IntegerDigits), 18, 140
Bases
    numbers in other, 18, 140
BBC
    word cloud from website of, 282
Beep, 56
Beginning of list (First), 16
Benfords law, 145
BesselJ, 140
Bidirectional graph (UndirectedGraph), 119
Big numbers, 2
Binarize, 41
Binary digits (IntegerDigits), 18
Binary dump format (DumpSave), 273
Bindings
    for APIs (EmbedCode), 234
Binomial, 310
Binomial coefficients, 163, 310
Bins
    in histogram, 146
Bioinformatics, 268
    clustering in, 134
Birds
    as web image search, 277
Bitcoin, 91
Bitmaps, 49
Black, 25
Black and white (Binarize), 41
Black background, 240
Black-and-white plots, 240
Blank (_), 199
Blend, 25, 160
Block matrices (ArrayFlatten), 185
Block
    compared to Module, 245
Blocks
    partitioning into, 183
Blue, 25
Blur, 39, 153
    text recognition and, 127
Bold, 28
Books
    word frequencies in, 104
Boolean computation, 312
Boolean operations, 171
BooleanCountingFunction, 312
BooleanMinimize, 312
Booleans, 175
BooleanTable, 312
Bordering countries, 79
Borders
    of graphics (EdgeForm), 71
Bowtie polygon, 71
Boxed, 71
BoxWhiskerChart, 146
Braces ({...})
    for lists, 10
Brackets ([...])
    square, 3
Brains
    as inspiration for ImageIdentify, 133
Break strings (StringSplit), 264
Browsers
    CurrentImage in, 44
Bubble sort, 261
BubbleChart, 146
Bugs, 300, 305
Built-in functions, 73
    redefining, 254
BusinessDayQ, 174
ButterflyGraph, 123
ByteCount, 212
C++, xi, 304
Caching
    content of cloud objects, 273
    in function definitions, 304
Caffeine, 82
Cake chart (PieChart), 11
Calculus, 310
Calendar systems, 106
Calling APIs, 234
Callout, 236
Camera
    in apps, 231
    not available, 44
    picture from, 39
Canonical form
    for entities, 80
Capital letters
    for functions, 3, 4
Capitalize (ToUpperCase), 45
Capitals
    of Europe, 312
Car
    directions by, 99
    historical word frequency, 104
Cartography, 93
CAs (cellular automata), 313
Cases, 199, 209
    compared to Select, 199
    operator form of, 210
Catenate, 293
Cats
    testing for pictures of, 172
Ceiling, 141
CellularAutomaton, 304, 313
Centimeters, 87
Central limit theorem, 146
Centuries
    of word frequencies, 104
Chaining
    of dataset queries, 287
Chains of functions, 147
Chalkboard font, 114
Champernowne sequence, 190
Channel framework, 283
ChannelListen, 283
Character code (ToCharacterCode), 52
Character codes, 52
Character sets, 49
Characters
    in string patterns, 263
Characters, 46, 171, 183, 194, 211
Chart
    bar (BarChart), 11
    pie (PieChart), 11
ChartLabels, 215
Checkboxes
    in forms, 233
    in Manipulate, 37
Cheetah
    image identification of, 125
Chemicals
    interpreter for, 220
ChiSquareDistribution, 140
Choose elements (Select), 170
Chooser, 35
Chords
    musical, 55
ChromaticityPlot, 28
ChromaticityPlot3D, 28
Circle, 29, 154
    size of, 113
    with coordinates, 64
Circle graph (PieChart), 11
Circle packing, 65
Cities
    as entities, 93
    distance between, 93
    nearest, 97
City plots (GeoBubbleChart), 99
Classes of entities, 79
ClassifierFunction, 133
Classify, 125, 276
Clear, 242, 252
Clock
    on web, 227
Clock arithmetic (Mod), 139
ClockGauge, 226
Closest (Nearest), 126
Cloud
    deployment to, 225
    interactivity on, 37, 229
    Manipulate on, 37, 229
    physical location of, 234
    Wolfram Knowledgebase in, 84
Cloud base, 272
Cloud CDF, 229
Cloud objects, 269
    caching of, 273
CloudDeploy, 225, 313
CloudExport, 279
CloudExpression, 272
CloudGet, 269, 289
CloudPut, 269
CloudSave, 269
Cluster analysis, 128
Code
    annotations to, 304
    debugging of, 305
    efficiency of, 302
    making random changes in, 308
    optimization of, 304
    overly short, 301, 304
    writing good, 299
Code captions, xiii, 76
Code generation (EmbedCode), 234
Code reviews, 317
Collage (ImageCollage), 40
Collatz problem, 174
Collect elements (Gather), 186
Collisions
    of UUIDs, 269
Colon (:)
    in patterns, 258
Colon-equals (:=), 247
Colon-greater (:>), 248
Color blindness, 240
Color cube, 70
Color pickers
    in forms, 233
Color spaces, 28
    from FeatureSpacePlot, 130
    nearness in, 129
Color wheel, 28
ColorDistance, 133
ColorFunction, 116
ColorNegate, 25, 147, 154, 159
    for images, 39
Colors, 25
    background (Background), 110
    blending (Blend), 25
    dominant (DominantColors), 41
    HTML, 28
    in graphics (Style), 30
    models of, 28
    named, 28
    names of, 28
    nearest, 126, 129
    of text (Style), 26
    picking in Manipulate, 37
    random (RandomColor), 26
Column chart (BarChart), 11
Column, 12, 238
Columns
    in arrays, 194
    in datasets, 285
Combinations (Tuples), 188
Combinators, 260
Combining
    associations (Association), 293
    colors (Blend), 25
    lists (Join), 8
    plots (Show), 146
    strings (StringJoin), 45
Comments in code, 304
Common elements (Intersection), 187
Common words
    in English (WordList), 47
    in word cloud, 47, 293
Communities
    in graphs, 121
Community
    Wolfram, xv
CommunityGraphPlot, 121
Commutativity, 261
Comparative linguistics, 222
Compile, 304
Complement, 187
Complementary color (ColorNegate), 25
Complete graph, 119
    CompleteGraph, 123
Complex forms
    AskFunction, 234
Complex numbers, 140
Complexity
    from simple programs, 304, 313
Composite heads, 209
Compositing images (ImageAdd), 42
Composition operators, 294
Compound expressions (;), 243
CompoundElement, 234
Computational geometry, 311
Computational thinking, ix, 318
Computational universe, 313
Computed number fields, 230
Computer algebra, 310
Computers
    for Wolfram Language, xiv
Concatenate
    Catenate, 293
    Join, 8
    StringJoin, 45
Conditionals, 169
Conditions
    on patterns (/;), 257
Cone, 30
Confusion
    of letters, 127
Connected devices
    data from, 269
Connected graph, 133
ConnectedGraphQ, 174
Connections
    in graphs, 117
Connectivity (internet)
    for Interpreter, 224
    for units, 90
    needed for data, 84
Constituent graph, 221
Constraints
    on form fields, 233
Contexts, 304
Contour lines (MeshFunctions), 146
Contour plot, 144
ContourLabels, 146
ContourPlot3D, 309
Control+=, 77, 219
    for dates, 101
    for units, 87
ControllerInformation, 37
Controls
    UI, 35
Conversions
    between units, 87
ConvexHullMesh, 311
Coordinates, 63
    on Earths surface, 96
Corners
    of polygons, 67
Corporate data, 285
Cos, 140
Count, 16
Countries
    as entities, 77
    graph of bordering, 165
    maps of, 93
    nearest, 96
    picking out names of, 221
Country plots (GeoRegionValuePlot), 99
CountryData, 84
Counts, 213, 315
Course
    for this book, xv
Courses
    use of book in, xiv
CPU time, 304
Crawling
    on network (NestGraph), 165
CreateCloudExpression, 272
CreateDatabin, 270
Creating functions, 251
Crossing
    of graph edges, 123
Cryptocurrencies, 91
Cryptography, 314
Cuboid, 71
Curly brackets ({...})
    for lists, 10
Currency
    interpreter for, 219
    units of, 88
Currency codes, 91
Current location (Here), 97
Current time, 101
CurrentDate, 107
CurrentImage, 39
Currying, 212
Customer data, 289
Cylinder, 30
Cyrillic alphabet, 49
Darwin
Dashboard
    autorefreshed, 234
    creating a web, 227
Data
    hierarchical, 289
    importing, 275
    real-world, 77
Data Drop, Wolfram, 269
Data Repository, Wolfram, 278
Data signatures
    for databins, 273
Database join (JoinAcross), 217
DatabaseLink, 297
Databases, 297
    connecting to external, 297
    importing, 276
DatabinAdd, 270
Databins (in Wolfram Data Drop), 270
Dataset, 285
DateListPlot, 104, 270
Dates, 101
    formats of, 101
DateString, 106
DateValue, 106
DateWithinQ, 107
Day of week (DayName), 102
DayName, 102
DayRange, 101
DDMMYY (date format), 107
Debugging, 305
    interactive, 308
Decimal approximation, 135
Decimal degrees, 99
Decimal expansion (IntegerDigits), 16
Decimal points
    and approximate numbers, 135
Default values
    in patterns, 261
Defining variables, 241
Definitions
    of functions, 251
    of words (WordDefinition), 224
Defocus (Blur), 39
Degree, 88
Degrees-minutes-seconds, 99
Delayed assignment (:=), 247
Delayed rules (), 248
Delayed, 226
    as analog of :=, 248
DeleteDuplicates, 191
DeleteFile, 282
DeleteMissing, 84
DeleteStopwords, 47
Deleting
    elements of lists, 195
Delimiters
    split strings at, 264
Democracy
    word frequency, 104
Demonstrations Project, Wolfram, xv, 37
Dendrogram, 129
Deployment (CloudDeploy), 225
Desk
    sensor on my, 270
Destructuring
    of function arguments, 255
Device framework, 283
DeviceReadTimeSeries, 283
Diagramming
    sentence, 221
Dictionaries (associations), 216
Dictionary
    definitions (WordDefinition), 224
    list (WordList), 47
Differential equation, 311
DigitCharacter, 264
Digits
    as examples of coding styles, 300
    folding in, 180
    number of, 136
    of integers (IntegerDigits), 16
Dimension reduction, 134
Directed graph (Graph), 119
Directory
    file, 282
Disambiguation, 80, 224
Disappear (Nothing), 195
Disconnected graph, 133
Disk, 29
    area of, 311
Display (Echo), 306
Displaying lists, 11
Distance
    between cities, 93
Divide string (StringSplit), 264
Division (Divide), 1
    by zero, 2
DMS
    for geo positions, 99
Do, 245
Document generation, 314
Documentation
    for Wolfram Language, xv, 73
DocumentNotebook, 314
Dollars
    as unit, 88
    interpreter for, 219
DominantColors, 41
Dotted, 143
Double at (@@), 212
Double blank (__), 200
Double equals (==), 174
Downvalues, 255
Drawing
    from EdgeDetect, 41
    of graphs, 118
Driving directions, 99
Drop, 17
Drop-down menu, 35
DumpSave, 273
Duplicates
    remove (Union), 186
Dynamic programming, 304
Dynamic scoping, 245
Dynamic typing, 255
Dynamic visualization, 240
Each element
Earth surface path, 95
Earthquakes, 84
Echo, 306
Eclipse IDE, 304
EdgeDetect, 41, 49, 147, 159, 231
EdgeForm, 71
Edges
    of graph, 122
EdgeWeight, 122
EditDistance, 133
Efficiency
    of code, 302
Eiffel Tower, 81, 94
Elements
    of lists (Part), 16
    test for (MemberQ), 172
Elevation data (for Earth), 144
EllipticK (elliptic integral), 140
Email
    sending, 279
EmbedCode, 233, 313
Embedding
    of graphs, 118
EmitSound, 55
Emitted light colors, 28
Empty list, 18
Encrypt, 314
End of list (Last), 16
EndOfLine, 267
EndOfString, 267
English
    alphabet, 187
    as input language, 77
    computation on, 46
    lengths of words in, 143
    versus Wolfram Language, 301
    words in (WordList), 47
Entities, 77
    creating new, 84
    implicitly specified, 174
    in text (TextCases), 220
    searching for, 174
    setting up your own, 297
    types of, 80
EntityInstance, 84
EntityList, 79
EntityProperties, 81
EntityStore, 84, 297
EntityValue, 78
Environments
    for Wolfram Language, xiv
Equality testing (Equal), 169
Equations
    solving (Solve), 310
    structure of (==), 175
Erf, 140
Errors
    input, 4, 305
Escaping in strings, 52
Euclids algorithm, 260
EulerPhi, 140
Europe
    shortest tour of capitals, 312
European
    dates, 107
    units, 90
Euros
    interpreter for, 219
Evaluation
    controlled, 314
    in Wolfram Language, 207, 249
Even-odd rule, 71
EvenQ, 170
Everest
    Mount, 144
Evolutionary trees
    Dendrogram, 134
Excel format, 279
Except, 261
Exercises
    online version of, xv
Exp, 140
Experiments
    in Wolfram Language, 318
Exponential time, 303
Export, 279
ExportString, 283
Expressions
    size of, 212
    symbolic, 205
Extensible forms, 234
External device
    data from, 269
External programs, 279, 283, 314
External services, 277
Eyes
    and color, 28
Factor, 310
Factorial function
    built-in (!), 140, 252
    defining a, 252
FactorInteger, 140, 312
False, 169
Feature space, 129
Feature vectors, 134
FeatureExtraction, 134
FeatureNearest, 134
FeatureSpacePlot, 129
Feet (unit), 87
Fibonacci, 140, 304
    as example of coding, 301
Fields
    for forms, 229
    in datasets, 289
File path, 271
Files
    deleting, 282
    extensions for, 282
    importing from, 276
    local, 271
    names of, 272
    searching text, 268
FileTemplate, 268
Filled disk (Disk), 29
FilledCurve, 71
Filling, 110
Filter a list (Select), 170
FindClusters, 128
FindGeoLocation, 99
FindShortestPath, 118
FindShortestTour, 312
Finishing input, xiii
First letter (StringTake), 45
First, 16
    applied incorrectly, 305
FirstPosition, 197
FixedPointList, 259
Flags
    of countries, 77
Flat (), 55
Flat
    as function attribute, 261
Flatten, 118, 184, 194
Floating point numbers, 140
Floor, 141
Fluency
    in Wolfram Language, viii, 299
Flying turtles (AnglePath3D), 91
Fold, 181, 299
Folded polygons, 71
FoldList, 178
Font size (Style), 27
FontFamily, 28, 114
For each (/@), 148
For, 245, 299, 304
Foreign alphabets, 49
Foreign exchange, 88
Foreign keys, 297
Foreign languages
    function names in, 76
    WordTranslation, 222
Form fields
    restrictions on values in, 233
Form-based apps, 227
Formats
    cloud deployment, 233
    import, 282
FormFunction, 227
FormObject, 233
FormPage, 231
Forms
    apps based on, 227
    extensible, 234
    multipage, 234
FormTheme, 233
Forum (Wolfram Community), xv
Fractals, 162, 185
Fractions
    exact, 135
Frame, 114, 239
Framed, 148, 154, 159, 161, 179, 235
    rounded corners for, 240
Free-form input, xiii, 77, 219
Frequency
    of letters, 215
Frequency plot (Histogram), 143
Friend network, 122, 277
FromCharacterCode, 52
FromDigits, 18, 181, 300, 302
FromDMS, 99
FromLetterNumber, 49
Fuji
    Mount, 145
FullForm, 206
Function function (Function), 158
Function page
    in documentation, 75
Functional programming, 158, 180, 181, 245
    lack of assignments in, 243
Functions
    approximate, 311
    attributes of, 261
    built-in, 3, 73
    compared to math, 5
    composition of, 294
    defining your own, 251
    plotting, 309
    pure, 153
    reading out loud, 4
    repeated application of, 159
    saving to cloud of, 269
    templates for, 76
    translations of names for, 76
    ways to apply, 147
Functors, 181
GalleryView, 234
Gamepads
    for Manipulate, 37
Gamma (gamma function), 140
Ganymede, 294
Gather, 186
GatherBy, 186
Gaussian-distributed numbers (RandomReal), 141
GCD, 140
GCD algorithm, 260
Genomics, 268
    as string example, 51
GeoBackground, 112
GeoBubbleChart, 99
Geocomputation, 93
Geodesic path, 95
GeoDisk, 95
GeoDistance, 93, 173
GeoElevationData, 144
    resolution of, 146
Geographic position (GeoPosition), 96
GeoGraphics, 225
    ranges in, 111
geoIP, 99
GeoLabels, 112
GeoListPlot, 93
    ranges in, 111
Geometry, 311
    as example of topic, 74
    export of, 280
    fractal, 166
    importing, 276
    printing 3D, 280
    transformations in, 71
GeoModel, 99
GeoNearest, 96
GeoPath, 95
GeoPosition, 96
GeoProjection, 98, 225
GeoRange, 99, 111
GeoRegionValuePlot, 99
Get, 271
Get from cloud (CloudGet), 269
Ghost image (ColorNegate), 39
GIF, 233, 282
GIS (geocomputation), 93
Giza Pyramid, 81
Global values, 242
Goes to (Rule), 116
Golden ratio, 160, 304
Good code, 299
Government
    systems of, 104
GPS position, 99
Grades data, 289
GrammarRules, 224, 267
Grammatical structure (TextStructure), 221
Granularity
    of dates, 107
Graph, 117
    using Thread in constructing, 183
Graphics
    3D, 30, 144
    as not listable, 151
    colors in (Style), 30
    interactive, 34
    labeling in, 236
    lighting in, 31
    objects in, 29
    of data (ListPlot), 7
    primitives, 66
    resizing of, 240
GraphicsColumn, 239
GraphicsGrid, 239
GraphicsRow, 239
GraphLayout, 118
Graphs
    constructing from lists, 211
    nested, 164
    of nearest neighbors, 129
    random (RandomGraph), 123
    social, 277
Gray code
    as example of program, 306, 308
GrayLevel, 28
Great circle path, 95, 113
Great Pyramid, 81
Greater than (>), 169
GreaterEqual (), 174
GreaterThan, 174
Greek alphabet, 51, 52
Green, 25
Grid, 57, 155, 177, 183, 238
    nested, 162
    options for, 114
Gröbner bases, ix
Grouping (FindClusters), 128
    seeing with multi-clicking, 152
GUI construction, 309
Guide page
    in documentation, 74
Gunpowder, 223
Hash (#), 181
Hashmaps (associations), 216
Haskell Curry, 212
Head, 208
Heads
    associating values with, 255
Height map, 144
Height/width for plots, 113
Help
    on functions, 76
Here, 97
Hex colors, 28
Hexadecimal
    in UUIDs, 272
Hexagon (RegularPolygon), 29
Hidden state, 245
HIDs
    for Manipulate, 37
Hierarchical data, 289, 297
Hierarchy plot
    Dendrogram, 129
Higher-order functions, 181
Histogram, 143
Historical calendars, 106
History
    seen in word frequencies, 104
Hold, 249, 314
Home page
    for Wolfram Language, xv
Hot pink, 219
Hour
    as unit, 87
HTML
    exporting fragments, 233
    importing from web, 282
    templates (XMLTemplate), 268
HTML colors, 28
Hue, 26, 149
Human language
    identification of, 125
    input in, 77, 219
    learning as comparison, viii
Human-readable text, 267
Humidity
    from desk sensor, 271
HypercubeGraph, 123
Hyperlink, 234
Hyperlinks
    from my website, 276
    importing, 275
    network of, 117
IconRules, 234
Icons
    for mobile apps, 234
IDE
    for Wolfram Language, 304
Identity testing (===), 175
Idioms
    in code, 302
If, 169
    in function definitions, 252
Illumination
    in 3D graphics, 31
Image links
    creating, 234
Image search
    web, 277
Image3D, 61, 181
ImageAdd, 42, 44, 180
ImageCollage, 40
ImageData, 59
ImageIdentify, 125
imageidentify.com, 133
ImageInstanceQ, 172
ImageMultiply, 44
Images, 39
    adding (ImageAdd), 42
    arithmetic on, 44
    as arrays of numbers, 59
    combining (ImageCollage), 40
    getting from data, 61
    importing from websites, 275
    in forms, 231
    nearness for, 126
    of entities, 79
    testing for objects in, 172
ImageSize, 113, 240
Immediate assignment (=), 241, 247
Immersion
    for language learning, viii
Imperial units, 90
Implementation
    of Wolfram Language, xiv
Implicit entities, 174
Import, 275
ImportString, 283
In, 249
Increment (++), 245, 299, 304
Indices
    found with Position, 194
    in lists (Part), 16
    in tables, 19
Infinite loops, 249
Infinity, 2
Infix
    notation for Function, 158
Information (?), 254
Input
    terminating, xiii
Input fields
    in Manipulate, 37
    in web forms, 228
Input labels (In), 249
InputForm, 46
    for entities, 80
    for quantities, 87
Inserting in strings (StringRiffle), 265
Inset (graphics primitive), 71
Instances (Cases), 199
    of entities (EntityInstance), 84
Instant APIs, 234, 313
Instruments
    musical, 54
IntegerDigits, 16, 140, 155, 302
IntegerName, 48
IntegerQ, 170
IntegerReverse, 302
Integers
    big, 2
    English names (IntegerName), 48
    factoring, 312
    random, 3
Integrate, 310
Interactivity, 33
    in 3D graphics, 30
    of cloud graphics, 234
    on cloud, 37
Interleaving
    for lists (Riffle), 187
    for strings (StringRiffle), 265
Intermediate results
    capturing, 307
    printing, 306
Internal form (FullForm), 206
International alphabets, 49
International characters, 52
International versions
    code captions for, 76
Internet address
    for geo location, 99
Internet connectivity
    for data, 84
    for maps, 99
InterpolatingFunction, 311
Interpretations
    multiple, 80
Interpreter, 219
Interpreters
    for web forms, 230
Intersection, 187
Inverted graphics, 240
iOS deployment, 227
IT organizations, 285
Italic, 28
Iteration, 161
    for tables (Table), 19
    versus recursion, 166
Iterator specification, 23
    code generation for, 313
JavaScript, xi
    importing from web, 282
Join, 8, 163, 245
JoinAcross, 217
Joined, 113
Joining points, 67
Joysticks
    for Manipulate, 37
JPEG, 233
KeyDrop, 217
KeyMap, 217
Keys
    in associations, 213, 214
KeySelect, 217
KeySort, 213
KeyTake, 214
Key-value maps (associations), 216
Kilograms, 88
Knowledgebase, 77
Knowledge-based language, xi
Koala
    as example of entity, 81
Korean
    translation to, 222
Labeled, 235
Labels
    for any expressions, 235
    for bar charts, 215
    for contour lines, 146
    for form fields, 233
    in maps, 113
    of graphs, 117
    placement of, 240
Lambda expressions, 158
Language
    transliteration, 222
Language design, 299
LanguageIdentify, 125, 275
Languages
    code captions in other, xiii
    translation between, 222
    words in, 52
Large programs, xi, 304
Largest elements (TakeLargest), 195
Largest (Max), 3
Last, 16
Latest result (%), 241
Latin, viii
Latitude, 96
Layout
    of graphics, 235
    of graphs, 118
    of tabular data, 57, 238
LeafCount, 212
Leaves
    in expressions, 207
Left composition, 294
Legended, 237
Legends
    placement of, 240
Length
    of general expressions (Length), 210
    of lists (Length), 15, 150
    of strings (StringLength), 45
Less, 174
LetterCharacter, 264
LetterCounts, 214
LetterNumber, 49, 171
LetterQ, 171, 186
Letters
    in strings (Characters), 46
    non-English, 52
    visual nearness of, 131
Lexical scoping, 245
lhs (left-hand side), 203
Light
    from desk sensor, 271
LightGray, 235
Lighting
    simulated in 3D graphics, 31
LightYellow, 235
Line drawing (from EdgeDetect), 41
Line numbering
    in sessions, 244
Line, 66
LineLegend, 240
Lines
    in GeoListPlot, 113
    terminating input, xiii
Linguistics, 222
    evolutionary, 134
Link graph, 276
Links
    creating, 234
Linux, xiv
Listability, 15, 150, 152
    and associations, 217
ListAnimate, 181, 240
ListLinePlot, 11, 48, 63
    options for, 109
    with multiple datasets, 143
ListLogPlot, 138
ListPlay, 56
ListPlot, 7, 63
    analog for time series, 104
    labeled, 236
ListPlot3D, 144
Lists
    arithmetic on, 15
    as functions, 10
    as tables (Table), 19
    dropping sublists (Drop), 17
    filtering (Select), 170
    first look at, 7
    in datasets, 289
    internal structure of, 205
    joining (Join), 8
    length of (Length), 15
    membership in (MemberQ), 172
    of rules, 183
    of rules and associations, 214
    operations on, 15
    parts of, 16, 193
    random choice from (RandomChoice), 161, 188
    sequences in, 267
    symbolic, 10
    taking sublists (Take), 17
    visualization of, 11
    zero-length, 18
ListStepPlot, 146
ListStreamPlot, 146
Load definitions (CloudGet), 269
Local files, 271
    importing from, 276
Local values, 242
Local variables
    in modules, 243
LocalCache, 273
Localized names, 245
Localized values, 245
LocalObject, 271
LocalTime, 103
Location (Here), 97
    interpreter for, 219
Locked functions, 254
Log files
    importing, 276
Log plot (ListLogPlot), 138
Log, 293
Log10, 137
Logarithm
    base 10 (Log10), 137
    natural (Log), 137
Logic computation, 312
Logic operations, 171
Logistic regression, 134
Logo
    and AnglePath, 91
London
    as time zone example, 103
Long computations
    monitoring, 307
Long output
    suppressing, 241
Longer programs, 317
Longest, 258
Longitude, 96
Loop variable errors, 308
Loops
    for, 304
    in graphs, 117
    infinite, 249, 308
Los Angeles, 93
Louvre, 94
Low vision, 240
Machine precision, 140
Macintosh, xiv
Magnitude (Abs), 138
Mail
    sending, 279
Mail server
    for SendMail, 283
Manipulate, 33
    deploying to web, 226
    generating in cloud, 229
Map (/@), 151
Mappings
    mathematical, 158
Maps
    geographic, 93
    range of (GeoRange), 99
Market prices, 84
Marketing
    plots themed for, 109
Mars
    maps of, 99
Matches
    all possible, 261
    for patterns (Cases), 199
    for string patterns, 264
    longest, 258
    shortest, 258
Matching of brackets ([...]), 4
MatchQ, 199
Math notation, 310
Math typesetting, 310
Mathematica, vii
Mathematical computation, 310
Mathematical functions, 140
    visualization of, 309
Mathematical logic, 158, 212
Mathematical operations, 1
Mathematics
    comparison to learning, viii
    notion of function in, 5
    notion of mapping in, 152
    prerequisites, ix, xiv
Matrices
    lists of lists as, 61
Max, 3
    in Dataset, 287
MBOX, 282
Meaning
    of words, 224
MemberQ, 172
Memoization
    in function definitions, 304
Memory
    and big numbers, 2
MemoryConstrained, 308
Menger sponge, 190
Menus
    in forms, 233
    in Manipulate, 35, 37
Mercury
    as disambiguation example, 80
Merge
    for associations, 217, 293
Mesh, 143
MeshFunctions, 146
Meshing, 311
MeshStyle, 143
Messages
    from code, 305
    sending mail, 279
Methods
    symbolic generalization of, 255
Microphone input, 55
Middle C (note), 53
MIDI, 55
Min, 4
Minimization
    of Boolean functions, 312
Minimize, 310
Minus (Subtract), 4
Missing entries
    in datasets, 289
Missing, 84, 216
Mixing colors (Blend), 25
ML (machine learning), 125
MMDDYY (date format), 107
MNIST training set, 134
Mobile apps
    creation of, 227, 234
Mod, 139
Modularity
    in good code, 301
Module, 242
    compared to With, 305
Modulo (Mod), 139
Molecule
    as example of entity, 82
Monarchy
    word frequency, 104
Money
    computations with, 88
Monitor, 307
Month
    from date, 106
MOOC
    of this book, xv
Moon
    maps of, 99
    phase of (MoonPhase), 102
MoonPhase, 102
Moons
    as examples of Dataset, 289
Mosaic (ImageCollage), 40
Most, 18
Mount Everest, 144
Mount Fuji, 145
Movie titles, 223
MovieData, 84
Multi-clicking
    to see grouping, 152
Multicore system, 315
Multipage forms, 234
Multiple assignments, 245
Multiplication sign (×), 2
Multiplication table, 58, 177
Multiplication (Times), 1
Music, 53
Naive Bayes machine learning, 134
Named colors, 28
Named patterns, 201, 258
Naming
    of fields in datasets, 289
    of functions, 301
    of objects, 241
    principles of, 244
NATO, 190
    website of, 282
Natural language
    and language identification, 125
Natural language input, xiii, 219
Natural language understanding, 219
Natural logarithm, 137
NDSolve, 311
Nearest, 126, 165
NearestFunction, 167
NearestNeighborGraph, 129, 167
Negative part numbers, 193
Negative sentiment, 125
Neighbors
    nearest (Nearest), 126
Nest, 159, 306
NestGraph, 164
Nesting
    of functions, 159
NestList, 159, 185, 259, 264
    versus FoldList, 178
Net of polyhedron, 83
NetChain, 134
NetGraph, 134
NetModel, 134
NetTrain, 134
Networks, 117
Neural networks, 133
    construction of, 134
New Kind of Science, 304, 313
New York City, 93, 94, 219
    as entity, 80
    as time zone example, 103
Newlines, 265
    split at (StringSplit), 264, 275
Newtons method, 166, 260
NextDate, 107
Night
    temperatures at, 104
NKS (A New Kind of Science), 304
NLP (natural language processing), 220
NLU (natural language understanding), 219
Nodes
    of graph, 122
Nonlinear optimization, 310
Normal
    for associations, 214
    on Dataset, 288
Normal-distributed numbers (RandomReal), 141
NormalDistribution, 140
NoSQL databases, 297
Not (!), 171
Notable person classifier, 276
Notation
    mathematical, 310
Note
    musical (SoundNote), 53
Notebook generation, 314
Notebooks, xiii, 317
    as forms, 233
    as IDE, 304
    in cloud, 273
NotebookTemplate, 268
Nothing, 195
Nouns, 220
    number of, 224
    picturable in English, 133
Now, 101, 226
Null list, 18
Number crunching, 310
Number of occurrences (Count), 16
NumberLinePlot, 12, 293
NumberQ, 174
Numbers
    arithmetic with, 1
    big, 2, 135
    digits of, 16
    from digits (FromDigits), 18
    Gaussian distributed (RandomReal), 141
    in other bases, 18, 140
    list of, 7
    maximum size of, 2
    of letters (LetterNumber), 49
    precision of, 140
    random, 3, 136
    random sequences of, 22, 137
    range of, 7
    tests on, 170
NumberString, 267
Numerical analysis, 140
Numerical approximation, 135
Numerics, 140, 310
Obfuscated code, 301, 304
Object recognition (ImageIdentify), 125
Object-oriented programming, 254
Occurrences (Count), 16
OCR (optical character recognition), 127
Octagon (RegularPolygon), 29
Octave, 53
OddQ, 170
ODE, 311
Off-by-one errors, 308
Offsets
    in partitioning, 183
On-demand computation, 226, 247
Online
    version of this book, xv
OOP (object-oriented programming), 254
Opacity, 69
Operating systems
    for running Wolfram Language, xiv
Operations
    order of, 2
Operator forms, 209, 212, 287
Operators
    in mathematics, 212
Opportunities
    with programming, 318
Optical character recognition, 127
Optimization
    numerical, 310
    of code, 304
Options, 109
    autocompletion of, 116
    global setting of, 116
    pure functions as settings for, 116
Options (list of options), 116
Or
    Boolean (||), 171, 312
    for patterns (|), 200
Orange, 25
Order of operations, 2
Orderless
    as function attribute, 261
OrderlessPatternSequence, 261
Origin of Species
    text of, 278
Ostrich
    as example of image import, 282
Out, 249
Outliers, 110
Output
    suppressing, 241
Output labels (Out), 244, 249
Overlaps, 267
Overlaying plots (Show), 146
Paint colors, 28
Pairs (Tuples), 188
PalindromeQ, 175
Palindromes
    in English, 172
Parallel computation, 315
Parallelogram
    as example function, 75
ParallelTable, 315
Parentheses ((...)), 2
    and functional forms, 152
    in logic operations, 174
Paris, 94
Parsing (TextStructure), 221
Part, 16, 193
Partition, 183, 211
Parts
    and associations, 217
    of datasets, 285
    of general expressions, 208
    replacing (ReplacePart), 195
Pascals triangle, 163, 166
    modulo two, 166
Path
    in graph, 118
    traveling salesman, 312
    with angles (AnglePath), 89
Pattern-based programming, 243
Patterns, 199, 257
    and function definitions, 251
    conditions on (/;), 257
    for strings, 263
    named, 201
PatternSequence, 261
Pause
    in sound, 55
PDF, 233, 279
Pentagon (RegularPolygon), 29
Perception of color, 28
PerformanceGoal, 304
Permanence
    of names, 242
Permissions, 225, 272
    in cloud, 234
Permutations, 188
Persistence
    of names, 242
Persistent cloud expressions, 272
PersistentValue, 273
Phase of moon (MoonPhase), 102
Phone
    location of, 97
Photo mosaic (ImageCollage), 40
Photos
    CurrentImage, 39
    in apps, 231
Phrase structure, 221
Phylogenetic trees
    Dendrogram, 134
Pi (π), 136
Piano, 53
Pictogram (BarChart), 11
Picturable nouns, 133
PieChart, 11, 78, 149
    annotation of, 237
    in Dataset, 286
    labeled, 236
Pigment colors, 28
Pink
    hot, 219
Pink boxes
    and graphics errors, 305, 308
Pipes, 283
Pitch
    of musical notes, 54
Pixel array, 59
Pixel size
    of graphics (ImageSize), 113
Place value (IntegerDigits), 16
Placed, 240
Placement
    of labels, 240
PlanarGraph, 123
Planets, 79
    as example of Dataset, 289
    plot of sizes of, 138
Platforms
    for Wolfram Language, xiv
PLI (Programmable Linguistic Interface), 224
Plot
    of arrays (ArrayPlot), 58
Plot
    for functions, 309
PlotRange, 110
Plots
    combining (Show), 146
    of colors, 28
    of lists (ListPlot), 7
    range of (PlotRange), 110
PlotStyle, 143
PlotTheme, 109, 237
Plus, 1, 206
    as a function, 3
PNG, 233
    importing, 276
Point, 66
Point size
    of text, 27
Points
    in graphics, 63
    on graph, 122
Polygon
    regular (RegularPolygon), 29
Polygon, 66
Polyhedron
    net of, 83
PolyhedronData, 71
Polynomial factoring, 310
Popup menus
    in forms, 233
Position, 194
Positions (coordinates), 65
Positive part (Abs), 138
Positive sentiment, 125
Post tag system, 260
Postfix form (//), 147
Pounds
    as weight unit, 88
Powers of 10
    on map, 96
Powers of 2, 160
Powers of numbers (Power), 1
    definition of, 2
Precedence
    of arithmetic operations, 2
    of logic operations, 174
Precision
    of numbers, 136, 140
Prefix form (@), 147
Pressure
    from desk sensor, 270, 271
Previous result (%), 241
Primality testing (PrimeQ), 170
Primary colors, 28
Prime, 137, 150, 236, 315
PrimePi, 140
PrimeQ, 140, 170, 307, 315
Print (Echo), 306
Printout, 3D, 280
Printout3D, 280
Probabilities
    in image identification, 128
    in ImageIdentify, 133
    of UUID collisions, 233
Procedural programming, 243
    compared to functional, 181
Programmers
    being, 317
    fast intro for, vii
Programming Lab
    Wolfram, xiii, xiv, xv
Programming languages
    other, xi, xiv
Projections
    in maps, 96, 98
Pronunciation
    of functions, 4
Properties
    of entities, 77
Property, 122
Prose
    compared to code, 299
Proxy
    for SendMail, 283
ps (external process), 314
Pseudorandom numbers, 3
Pub-sub, 283
Publish-subscribe systems, 283
Publishing
    webpage, 225
Pure colors, 28
Pure functions, 153, 177
    and parentheses, 158
    arrow form of, 158
    as composite heads, 209
    nesting of, 159
    versus named function definitions, 255
    with explicit variables, 158
Purple, 25
Put into cloud (CloudPut), 269
Put, 271
Pyramid
    Great, 81
Pythagorean triples, 190
Python, xi
QA (quality assurance), 308
QR codes, 133
Quadtree, 162
Quality assurance, 308
Quantity, 87
Queries
    on datasets, 287
Question functions, 170
Quotes
    to indicate strings, 45
Quoting (evaluation control), 314
Radio buttons, 35
    in forms, 233
Radio stations
    number in countries, 78
Radius
    of circle, 65
Ragged arrays, 61
Ragged partition, 191
Rainbow (color lists), 26
Raising to powers (Power), 1
    definition of, 2
Random forests machine learning, 134
Random graph, 120
Random numbers
    as coordinates, 63
    continuous, 136
    grid of, 58
    integer, 3, 22
    seeding (SeedRandom), 37
Random walk, 161
RandomChoice, 161, 188
RandomColor, 26, 247
RandomEntity, 84
RandomGraph, 123
RandomInteger, 3
    sequences from, 22
RandomReal, 136, 248, 311
RandomSample, 188
RandomWord, 52
Range
    of map, 99
    of plots (PlotRange), 110
Range, 7
    analog for dates, 101
    listability of, 152
    with negative numbers, 23
    with strides, 21
Rapid prototyping (3D printing), 280
Raspberry Pi, xiv
Rasterize, 49, 127
    data from, 59
Readability
    of code, 301
Real numbers, 136
Real-time display, 33
    on web, 227
Real-world data, 77
RealDigits, 141
Reap, 307
Recognition
    of barcodes, 133
    of images (ImageIdentify), 125
    of text (TextRecognize), 127
Recomputation, 249
    avoiding, 304
    in Fibonacci algorithm, 303
Recording
    of sound, 55
Records
    in datasets, 289
Recursion, 161
    infinite, 249
    versus iteration, 166
Recursive definition, 252, 300
Red, 25, 95, 143
Red input, 4, 305
Red-green-blue colors (RGBColor), 25
Reflected light colors, 28
RegularExpression, 267
RegularPolygon, 29
    and coordinates, 66
Relational databases, 297
    and associations, 217
ReleaseHold, 314
Relief maps, 112, 145
ReliefPlot, 145
Repeat
    list elements (Table), 19
RepeatedTiming, 304
RepeatingElement, 234
Repetition
    of functions, 159
Repetitions
    in patterns (..), 258
    in string patterns, 264
ReplaceAll, 203
ReplaceList, 203, 261
Replacements, 200
    in strings (StringReplace), 263
ReplacePart, 195
Replicate
    list elements (Table), 19
Resizing graphics, 240
Resolution
    of images, 59
ResourceData, 278
Rest
    musical, 55
Rest, 18
RESTful APIs, 234
Restricted, 233
Result
    latest (%), 241
Reversal
    of string (StringReverse), 45
Reverse, 8, 150, 302
RGBColor, 25
Rhombic hexecontahedron, 83, 280
rhs (right-hand side), 203
Riffle, 187
Right composition, 294
Romanization (transliteration), 49, 222
RomanNumeral, 48, 195
Rotate, 71, 88, 154
Rotation
    of 3D graphics, 30
Round down (Floor), 141
Round up (Ceiling), 141
Round, 138
Rounded corners, 240
RoundingRadius, 240
Roundoff errors, 140
Row
    for display, 238
Rows
    in arrays, 194
    in datasets, 285
Rubles
    interpreter for, 219
Rule 30 (cellular automaton), 304, 313
Rule (), 109, 211
    as used in options, 116
    in Graph, 122
    in replacements, 201
RuleDelayed (:>), 249
RulePlot, 313
Rules
    delayed (), 248
    lists of and associations, 214
Run-length encoding (Split), 186
Running time
    for bubble sort, 261
    for recursive definition, 302
Running Wolfram Language
    environments for, xiv
RunProcess, 283, 314
Runs of elements (Split), 186
Russian alphabet, 49
Sampled sound, 56
San Francisco, 173
Sandboxed code execution, 308
Saturation
    of color, 28
Save, 271
Saving
    in binary, 273
    to cloud (CloudSave), 269
Scale, 71
Scale-free network, 123
Scientific notation, 136
Scoping
    of variables, 242
Scoping constructs
    patterns as, 203
Scratch
    and AnglePath, 91
Sculpteo (3D printing service), 281
Search
    image, 134
    web, 44, 277
Search engine
    building a webpage like a, 231
Searching
    text files, 268
Secondary colors, 28
Sector graph (PieChart), 11
SeedRandom, 37
See-through graphics (Opacity), 69
Select, 170
    compared to Cases, 199
    in datasets, 287
    operator form of, 209, 287
Semantic expression
    as interpretation, 224
Semantic number
    as interpretation, 230
SemanticImport, 297
Semantics, 219
Semicolon (;)
    at end of line, 241
Semitones, 53
Sending mail (SendMail), 279
SendMail, 279
    server for, 283
Sensors
    data from, 269
    direct connection to, 283
Sentence diagramming, 221
Sentences
    lengths of, 146
    lists of (TextSentences), 46
Sentiment analysis, 125
Sequence of numbers (Range), 7
SequenceAlignment, 268
SequenceCases, 267
Sequences
    in lists, 267
    of operations (;), 243
    of parts, 193
ServiceConnect, 282
Services
    accessing external, 277
Sessions
    persistence across, 273
    results in, 241
Set complement (Complement), 187
Set intersection (Intersection), 187
Set union (Union), 186
Set (=), 249
SetDelayed (:=), 249
SetOptions, 116
Setting names, 241
Shade
    of color (Hue), 28
    of gray (GrayLevel), 28
Shapes
    of plots (AspectRatio), 113
Sharp (#), 55
Shift+return, xiii
Short IDs, 272
Short URL (URLShorten), 226, 272
Shortest path
    in graph, 118
Shortest, 263, 267
Shrinkwrapping, 311
SI units, 90
Side effects, 158, 245
Side labels
    in plots (Legended), 237
Sierpinski pattern, 185, 190
Sigma (Sum), 310
Signal processing, 55
Similarity
    in feature space, 130, 131
Simple programs, 313
Simplicity of good code, 300
Simplification
    of Boolean functions, 312
Sin, 140, 309
Size
    of big numbers, 2
    of expressions, 212
    of graphics (ImageSize), 113
    of text, 27
SK combinators, 260
Sketch (from EdgeDetect), 41
Skull, 82
Slash at (/@), 148, 152
Slash dot (/.), 200
Slash semi (/;), 257
Slash slash (//), 152
Slider, 309
Sliders
    in forms, 233
    in Manipulate, 33
    on web, 226
Slot (#), 181
Slots
    in pure functions (#), 153, 177
    in string templates, 265
Smallest elements (TakeSmallest), 195
Smallest value (Min), 4
Smart fields, 230
SmoothHistogram, 146
Social networks, 117
SocialMediaData, 277
Software engineering, 304, 317
Solid objects, 69
Solve, 310
Sonification, 53
Sort, 15, 186
    in associations, 213
    of characters, 46
    timing of, 303
SortBy, 186
    operator form of, 288
Sorting algorithm, 258
Sound, 53
    importing, 276
Sound effects, 55
SoundNote, 53
Sow, 307
Spacecraft simulations (AnglePath3D), 91
Spaces
    for multiplication, 2
    in string patterns, 264
Spanish
    words in, 52
Spanish captions, xiii
Spans
    in lists, 193
SparseArray, 61
Speak, 56
Spectrogram, 55
Speed
    of code, 302
Sphere, 30
    and coordinates, 68
Spikey
    3D printout of, 280
    net of, 83
Spiral
    from AnglePath, 89
Split strings (StringSplit), 264
Split, 186
Spoken output (Speak), 56
Spreadsheets
    as source for datasets, 297
    data from, 279
    importing, 276
SQL databases, 297
    connecting to, 297
Sqrt (square root), 137
Square brackets, 4
    for functions, 3
Square root (Sqrt), 137
    nested, 160
Squares
    generated with Array, 177
    of numbers (Power), 1
    table of, 20, 299
Squaring
    nested, 160
Stacked output (Column), 12
Star (*)
    for multiplication, 2
    in regular expressions, 267
Starry Night (painting), 82
Start of list (First), 16
StartOfLine, 267
StartOfString, 267
State capitals, 223
Static typing, 255
Stephen Wolfram
    A New Kind of Science book by, 304
    as CurrentImage example, 39
    as example of entity, 82
    automatic recognition of, 276
    home page, xv
    importing from website of, 276
stephenwolfram.com, 276
Steps
    debugging in, 308
    in lists, 21
    in procedural programs, 243
STL file, 280
Stock prices, 84
Stopwords, 47
    removal of, 52
Store in cloud (CloudPut), 269
Stream plot (ListStreamPlot), 146
Street
    addresses, 220
    maps, 98
Stride
    in lists, 21
String templates, 265
StringCases, 263
StringContainsQ, 174
StringJoin, 45, 265
StringLength, 45, 143, 154
StringMatchQ, 264
StringReplace, 263
StringReverse, 45, 172
StringRiffle, 265
Strings, 45
    dates as, 106
    exporting from (ExportString), 283
    from expressions, 265
    importing from (ImportString), 283
    joining (StringJoin), 45
    natural language interpretation of, 219
    overlaps in matching for, 267
    patterns for, 263
    quotes in (InputForm), 46
    to lists of letters (Characters), 46
    versus symbols, 52
StringSplit, 264, 275
StringTake, 45
StringTemplate, 266
Structs (associations), 216
Structured data, 285
Student data, 289
Style, 49, 95, 154
    for labels, 235
    in document generation, 314
    in plots, 237
    options in, 114
Styles
    in forms, 233
Sub
    for Part, 197
Subject line
    for email, 279
Sublists
    creating, 183
    operations on, 267
Subscript (Part), 16
Subsets, 188
Subtraction (Subtract), 1, 4
Subvalues, 255
Successor function, 160
Suggestions, xiii
Sum of elements (Total), 15
Sum, 310
Sunrise, 102
Sunset, 102
Supervised machine learning, 134
Support vector machines, 134
Suppressing output, 241
SVG, 233
Swapping values, 245
Swatches
    of color, 28
Swedish
    alphabet, 187
Switzerland
    as example, 79
    graph of bordering countries, 165
Symbolic
    database generalization, 297
    documents, 314
    expressions, 205
    generalization of types, 255
    images as, 44
    languages, 10, 13, 84, 212
    lists as example, 10
    mathematics, 310
    mixing of types in lists, 13
    representation of infinity, 2
    results, 305
    user interfaces, 309
Symbolically-indexed lists (associations), 216
Symbols, 206
Syntax errors, 4, 305
SystemOpen, 282
Systems operations, 314
    and /@, 158
    for lists of lists, 57
    in earlier versions, 23
    versus Array, 177
Tabular data, 285
Tabular output (Grid), 57
Tag cloud (WordCloud), 47
Tag system, 260
Take, 17, 193
    analog for keys (KeyTake), 214
TakeLargest, 195
TakeSmallest, 195
Temperature
    AirTemperatureData, 103
    from desk sensor, 271
Templates
    for built-in functions, 76
    string, 265
Testing
    framework for, 308
    importance of, 305
    of larger programs, 317
TestReport, 308
Tests, 169
    on form fields, 233
Tetrahedron, 71
Text
    color of (Style), 26
    computation with, 45
    rotation of (Rotate), 88
    structure of, 221
Text (graphics primitive), 71
Textbook math, 310
TextCases, 220
TextRecognize, 127
TextSearch, 268
TextSentences, 46
TextString, 265, 267
TextWords, 46
Theme
    of forms (FormTheme), 233
    of graphics (PlotTheme), 109
Theorems
    about Wolfram Language, 10
Thick, 95
Thread, 183
Three-dimensional graphics, 30, 68, 144
    in the cloud, 234
Three-dimensional printing, 280
Tilde tilde (~~), 267
Time series, 103
Time zones, 103
TimeConstrained, 308
Times, 101
Times, 1, 177
    as a function, 3
TimeSeries, 106
Timing, 302, 304
Tint, 28
Tiny
    as ImageSize, 113
ToCharacterCode, 52
Today, 102
Tokyo, 95
Tomorrow, 101
Tooltip, 237
Topography, 144
ToString, 267
Total, 15, 242, 300
    in associations, 213
    in Dataset, 286
ToUpperCase, 45
TraditionalForm, 310, 312
Traffic lights
    as color example, 27
Training
    in machine learning, 126
    of neural nets, 134
Training sets
    for machine learning, 134
Transition graph, 211
Translate, 71
Translation
    of function names, 76
    of words (WordTranslation), 222
Transliterate, 222
Transparency (Opacity), 69
Transpose, 183, 191, 259
TravelDirections, 99
TravelDistance, 99
Traveling salesman problem, 312
TravelTime, 99
Tree
    as graph (KaryTree), 123
    from NestGraph, 164
Tree of life
    Dendrogram, 134
Tree plot
    Dendrogram, 129
TreeForm, 207
Trees
    expressions as, 212
Triangle (RegularPolygon), 31
Triple at (@@@), 212
Triple blank (___), 257
Triple equals (===), 175
Triples (Tuples), 188
True, 169
Truth table, 312
TSP (traveling salesman problem), 312
Tuples, 188
Turkish
    alphabet, 187
Turning path (AnglePath), 89
Turtle graphics (AnglePath), 91
Tweet-a-Program, xv
Twenty questions
    and ImageIdentify, 133
Types
    in Wolfram Language, 254
Typesetting, 310
UN website, 275
UndirectedGraph, 119
Unequal (), 174
Unevaluated results, 305
Unicode, 52
Union, 186, 191
Unique identifiers, 233
Unit tests, 308
UnitConvert, 87
    for dates, 101
United Nations website, 275
United States
    as entity, 77
    map of, 93
Units
    of measure, 87
Universally unique identifiers, 233
Universities
    interpreter for, 220
Unknowns
    symbols as, 212
Unprotect, 254
Unravel (Flatten), 184
Unsupervised machine learning, 134
UpdateInterval, 227
Uploading
    to cloud, 282
Uppercase (ToUpperCase), 45
UpTo, 191
Upvalues, 254, 255
URLShorten, 226, 272
URLSubmit, 283
US units, 90
User functions
    defining, 251
User ID, 272
User interface construction, 309
UUIDs, 233, 269
    format of, 272
    number of, 272
Validation
Values
    for a databin, 270
    in associations, 214
Van Gogh
    painting as example, 82
Vanish (Nothing), 195
Variables
    global, 242
    in tables, 19
    local, 242
    names of, 20, 23
    persistent, 273
    scoping of, 242
Vector plot (ListStreamPlot), 146
Vectors
    lists as, 61
Verbs, 221
VerificationTest, 308, 317
Version
    of Wolfram Language, xiv, 304
Version control, 317
VertexLabels, 117, 164
VertexStyle, 122
Vertical bar, 202
Vertical output (Column), 12
VerticalGauge, 146
Vertices
    of graphs, 117
Violin, 54
Visible quotes (InputForm), 46
Vision
    color, 28, 133
Visual nearness, 131
Visualization, 143
    annotation of, 236
    for debugging, 306
    of functions, 309
    of lists, 11
Voice output, 56
Volcanoes, 97
Voxels (Image3D), 61
Wall clock time (AbsoluteTiming), 304
Waveforms
    for sound, 56
Weather
    data on, 103
Web
    interactivity on, 37
    Manipulate on, 37
    network of, 117
    plots themed for, 109
Web address
    in Wolfram Cloud, 226
    length of, 233
Web APIs, 234
Web computation (Delayed), 226
Web crawler, 166, 276
Web forms, 230
Web links
    creating, 234
Web search, 277
    vs. Wolfram Knowledgebase, 84
Webcam
    picture from, 39
WebImageSearch, 44, 277
Websites
    creating, 225, 317
    embedding on (EmbedCode), 233
Weeks
    and time computations, 101
Weight
    as example of quantity, 88
White House
    location of, 219
Whitespace, 264, 267
Whole number
    random, 3
Wikipedia
    importing images from, 276
WikipediaData, 154, 214, 221
    images from, 44
    text from, 47
Windows operating system, xiv
With, 305
wolfr.am, 226
Wolfram Cloud, 225
    and SendMail, 283
    storage in, 269
Wolfram Cloud app, 227, 234
Wolfram Community, xv
Wolfram Connector, 282
Wolfram Data Drop, 269
Wolfram Data Repository, 278
Wolfram Demonstrations Project, xv, 37
Wolfram Knowledgebase, 77, 275
Wolfram Language
    home page, xv
    metadata about (WolframLanguageData), 76
    nature of, xi
    scope of, 73
    time to learn, 76
    uses of, xi
    version of, xiv
Wolfram logo
    3D printout of, 280
    net of, 83
Wolfram Notebooks, xiii, 317
    as IDE, 304
    in cloud, 273
Wolfram Programming Lab, xiii, xiv, xv
Wolfram Research, xv
Wolfram U, xv
Wolfram Workbench, 304
Wolfram|Alpha, vii
    as example of large program, 317
    building a webpage like, 231
    comparison with, xi
    data vs. Wolfram Language, 84
    interpreting strings like, 224
    knowledgebase for, 77
WolframLanguageData, 76
WordBoundary, 267
WordCloud, 47, 221
    options for, 114
    weighting in, 293
WordDefinition, 224
WordFrequencyData, 104
WordList, 47, 126, 143, 172
WordOrientation, 114
Words
    graph of nearest, 165
    historical frequencies of, 104
    lengths of common, 143
    nearest, 126, 133, 165
Words for integers (IntegerName), 48
Words in text (TextWords), 46
WordTranslation, 222
Writing systems
    conversion between, 49
3D graphics, 30, 68, 144
    box around (Boxed), 71
    in the cloud, 234
3D printing, 280
3D shapes, 68, 71
3n+1 problem, 174
$FontFamilies, 116
$GeoLocation, 99
$ImportFormats, 282
$InterpreterTypes, 224
$Permissions, 234
$ProcessorCount, 315
 
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