Asymptotic Output Tracking with Estimator 

Design a controller for a cardiac pacemaker to maintain a healthy ECG signal. The controller has to incorporate an estimator since not all signals are measured. »

A third-order heartbeat model.

In[1]:=
Click for copyable input
X

With completely zero stimuli, the ECG signal is zero.

In[2]:=
Click for copyable input
X
Out[2]=

The model reveals some zero dynamics involving states and .

In[3]:=
Click for copyable input
X
In[4]:=
Click for copyable input
X
Out[4]=

The zero dynamics are well behaved.

In[5]:=
Click for copyable input
X
Out[5]=

A reference data for is obtained from physionet.org.

In[6]:=
Click for copyable input
X

Compute the tracking controller.

In[7]:=
Click for copyable input
X
Out[7]=

Compute a set of estimator gains.

In[8]:=
Click for copyable input
X
Out[8]=

The complete controller.

In[9]:=
Click for copyable input
X
Out[9]=

The simulation shows that the tracking has been achieved.

In[10]:=
Click for copyable input
X
In[11]:=
Click for copyable input
X
Out[11]=